Civil Services Exam 2025

Civil Services Exam 2025

The Civil Services Examination is a national competitive examination in India conducted by the Union Public Service Commission for recruitment to higher Civil Services of the Government of India, including the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, and Indian Police Service.

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Our Study Notes Prepared by : Selected competitors, retired professors, and senior competitors more than 10 year experience

The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is a nationwide competitive examination in India conducted by the Union Public Service Commission for recruitment to higher Civil Services of the Government of India, including the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, and Indian Police Service.

Also simply referred to as the UPSC examination, it is conducted in three phases - a preliminary examination consisting of two objective-type papers (General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II also popularly known as Civil Service Aptitude Test or CSAT), and a main examination consisting of nine papers of conventional (essay) type, in which two papers are qualifying and only marks of seven are counted followed by a personality test (interview). A successful candidate sits for 32 hours of examination during the complete process.

The IAS exam is conducted to recruit the top functionaries who chair the top positions in all the government departments. The topper of the IAS exam has the opportunity to become the Cabinet Secretary to the Government of India. It is the highest bureaucratic position one person can have in India. UPSC conducts the IAS Exam for the following services.

UPSC conducts the IAS Exam for the following services :

All India Services

  • Indian Administrative Services (IAS)
  • Indian Police Servies (IPS) 
  • Indian Forest Services (IFoS) [Prelims Only]

Central Civil Services

  • Indian Foreign Services(IFS)

  • Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise), Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Revenue Service (I.T.), Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Assistant Works Manager, Administration).

  • Indian Postal Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group 'A'.

  • Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force, Group ‘A’

  • Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group ‘A’.

  • Indian Trade Service, Group 'A'.

  • Indian Corporate Law Service, Group ‘A’.

  • Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ (Section Officer’s Grade).

  • Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu & Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service, Group 'B'.

  • Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu & Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service, Group 'B'.

  • Pondicherry Civil Service, Group 'B'.

  • Pondicherry Police Service, Group ‘B’.


“More than strategy, I think if someone wants to be a civil servant, they should be very clear about their motivation as only that will push you on difficult days. Consistency is key.”

(“रणनीति से अधिक, मुझे लगता है कि अगर कोई सिविल सेवक बनना चाहता है, तो उसे अपनी प्रेरणा के बारे में बहुत स्पष्ट होना चाहिए क्योंकि केवल वही आपको कठिन दिनों में प्रोत्साहित करेगा। एकाग्रता महत्वपूर्ण है।”)

Shruti Sharma (AIR 1) - My strategy was to focus on my own notes with emphasis on answer-writing practice for the Mains exam. she opted for history as the optional subject in the Mains. Instead of counting the number of hours, she used to give as many hours as possible for the exam preparation.

Ankita Agarwal (AIR 2) - Ankita Agarwal said she prepared through self-study as well as coaching. She believes both play equally important roles in a candidate’s life. She began her UPSC preparation 4 years ago and apart from basic books, she kept herself updated with current affairs. She made her notes on a computer as it is easier to organise notes digitally. She solved a few test series to help her get enough practice before the actual exams. For Mains preparation, her centre of attention was answered writing practice.

IAS Kanika Rathi - She used to study for 5-6 hours a day and consider revision as the basis of success. She went to coaching for a year, but after that she gave preference to self-study. For studies, she also took the help of tutorials on YouTube.

DIG few tips for UPSC Exam Preparation

  • NEED Action Plan – Set aside at least one year for CSE preparation and create an action plan to get started.

  • NEED Plan meticulously– When preparing for the UPSC CSE, always have a realistic and feasible study programme in place. Making a calendar and keeping track of your goals might also assist.

  • NEED study material – Jumping from book to book for test preparation will only lead to confusion; thus, choose a few books and resources and try to keep to them as much as possible.

  • Use the internet for requirement topics – While the internet is a wonderful source of knowledge and study material, she cautions pupils from overusing it because there are several distractions.

  • Do not be anxious - it will take some time to find a CSE preparation routine that works for you. Do not worry if a topic appears difficult and you become stuck; think it through and you will gain insight on how to learn that specific idea.

  • Selfconfident on yourself - Know your own strengths and shortcomings then allow you to focus your preparation. This focus and clarity will be extremely beneficial in improving each level of preparation based on your requirements.

  • Do more Practice & Practice - Before taking the actual exam, take mock practice examinations for both the prelims and the mains. This will help you develop confidence and expertise in appropriately structuring your responses.

  • To be focused on your goal - Preparing for the UPSC exam can be extremely difficult, so stay motivated and be positive. Always see the positive side of things and believe in your abilities to clear the UPSC CSE exam.


आईएएस परीक्षा में मिलेगी सफलता, अगर आप करते हैं ऐसे तैयारी तो

सपनों को हकीकत में बदलने के लिए बड़ी कीमत चुकानी पड़ती है. ऐसा ही एक सपना देश में लाखों युवाओं का जिसके लिए उन्हें अपनी जिंदगी के कुछ साल दिन-रात देना पड़ता है उसके बाद वह आईएएस की परीक्षा में सफल हो पाते हैं.  हमारे देश का हर दूसरा युवा आईएएस (IAS) बनने की इच्छा रखता है, लेकिन ऐसा हो नहीं पाता. दरअसल, यूपीएससी की परीक्षा देश की सबसे कठिन परीक्षाओं में शुमार है. अगर इस परीक्षा की तैयारी करते हुए जरा सी प्लानिंग इधर से उधर हुई तो अभ्यर्थी (Applicant) का सपना सच नहीं हो पाता है. यदि पूरी प्लानिंग (Planning) के साथ तैयारी की जाए तो सफलता (Success) आपके हाथ जरूर लगेगी. अकसर अभ्यर्थी पहले प्रयास में फेल हो जाने के बाद हार मान लेते हैं, लेकिन उन्हें ऐसा नहीं करना चाहिए. अभ्यर्थी को एक बार फिर अपनी प्लानिंग को देखना चाहिए और उससे कहां चुक हुई है, उसे ठीक कर के दोबारा प्रयास करना चाहिए.  

यूपीएससी परीक्षा (UPSC Exam) में शामिल होने वाले अभ्यर्थियों की उम्र 21 वर्ष से 32 वर्ष के मध्य होती है. वहीं, पिछड़े वर्ग के अभ्यर्थियों को इसमें छूट प्रदान की जाती है, 21 वर्ष से 35 वर्ष तक के अभ्यर्थी इस परीक्षा में शामिल हो सकते हैं.

इस प्रकार करें शुरुआत 
सबसे पहले परीक्षा की पूरी जानकारी होना आवश्यक है. परीक्षा के सिलेबस (Syllabus) को समझें. फिर उसी के अनुसार रणनीति बनाएं और अध्ययन की सामग्री को एकत्र करें. मन लगाकर पढ़ाई करें. पढ़ाई के साथ ही साथ लेखन करना भी जरूरी है. अधिक से अधिक मोक टेस्ट दें. अखबार व मैगजीन जरूर पढ़ें.

रोज कैसे पढ़ें जानें
तैयारी की शुरुआत से ही सिलेबस पर नजर बनाकर रखें. किताबों के साथ ही साथ सिलेबस को भी पूरा करते चलें. दिन में सभी विषयों (Subjects) के लिए समय निर्धारित करें. साथ ही उसी हिसाब से टॉपिक्स (Topics) को कवर करें. प्रत्येक दिन एक घंटे अखबार जरूर पढ़ें. सिविल सर्विस के लिए करंट अफेयर्स की जानकारी बहुत आवश्यक होती है. प्रयास करें की एक दिन की भी पढ़ाई मिस न हो.

रिवीजन है बहुत जरूरी 
परीक्षा के लिए पढ़ाई के साथ-साथ रिवीजन (Revision) खासा जरूरी है. जिन टॉपिक्स को पूरा किया है, दूसरे दिन उसका रिवीजन जरूर करें. साथ ही साथ नोट्स बनाते चलें.

चेकलिस्ट तैयार करें 
सिलेबस का चेकलिस्ट (Checklist) तैयार करें. जो भी टॉपिक पूरा कर लें उसे लिस्ट पर मार्क करें. सिलेबस को आप अपनी चेकलिस्ट के अनुसार हल करते रहें. ध्यान रहे कि कोई भी विषय आप से छूट न जाए. 

पुराने पेपर का अभ्यास 
पिछले वर्ष के पेपर को देखने से आपको समझ आ जाएगा कि किसी विषय को ज्यादा समय देना और किस को कम. पेपर पैटर्न को समझने के लिए पिछले दस साल के पेपर को हल करने की कोशिश करें. जिससे आपका टाइम मैनेटमेंट (Time Management) बेहतर हो जाएगा. 

Civil Services Examination Pattern

The Civil Services Examination will consist of two successive stages (vide Appendix I Section-I)

(i) Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective type) for the selection of candidates for the Main Examination; and (ii) Civil Services (Main) Examination (Written and Interview) for the selection of candidates for the various Services and posts noted above. Applications are now invited for the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination only.

Candidates who are declared by the Commission to have qualified for admission to the Civil Services (Main) Examination will have to apply online again, in the Detailed Application Form which would be made available to them.

The Civil Services Examination will consist of two successive stages :

(i) Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective type) for the selection of candidates for the Main Exam;

(ii) Civil Services (Main) Examination (Written and Interview) for the selection of candidates for the various Services and posts noted above.

Applications are now invited for the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination only.

Candidates who are declared by the Commission to have qualified for admission to the Civil Services (Main) Examination will have to apply online again, in the Detailed Application Form which would be made available to them.

The Preliminary Examination will consist of twopapers of Objective type (multiple choice questions) and carrya maximum of 400 marks in the subjects set out in sub-section(A) of Section II. This examination is meant to serve as ascreening test only; the marks obtained in the PreliminaryExamination by the candidates who are declared qualified foradmission to the Main Examination will not be counted fordetermining their final order of merit.

The number of candidatesto be admitted to the Main Examination will be about twelve tothirteen times the total approximate number of vacancies to befilled in the year through this examination. Only thosecandidates who are declared by the Commission to havequalified in the Preliminary Examination in the year will beeligible for admission to the Main Examination of that yearprovided they are otherwise eligible for admission, to the Main Examination.

Note I : The Commission will draw a list of candidates to bequalified for Civil Services (Main) Examination based on thecriterion of minimum qualifying marks of 33% in General StudiesPaper-II of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination and totalqualifying marks of General Studies Paper-I of Civil Services(Preliminary) Examination as may be determined by theCommission.

Note II : There will be negative marking for incorrect answers(as detailed below) for all questions except some of thequestions where the negative marking will be inbuilt in theform of different marks being awarded to the most appropriateand not so appropriate answer for such questions.

(i) There are four alternatives for the answers to everyquestion. For each question for which a wrong answer hasbeen given by the candidate, one-third (0.33) of the marksassigned to that question will be deducted as penalty.

(ii) If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will betreated as a wrong answer even if one of the given answershappen to be correct and there will be same penalty as abovefor that question.

(iii) If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given bythe candidate, there will be no penalty for that question 1/3.

The Main Examination will consist of written examination and an interview test.

The written examinationwill consist of 9 papers of conventional essay type in thesubjects set out in sub-section (B) of Section II out of which two papers will be of qualifying in nature.

Candidates who obtain such minimum qualifyingmarks in the written part of the Main Examination as may befixed by the Commission at their discretion, shall be summonedby them for an interview for a Personality Test.

The number of candidates to besummouned for interview will be about twice of the number ofvacancies to be filled.

The interview will carry 275 marks (withno minimum qualifying marks).

Marks thus obtained by the candidates in the Main Examination (written part as well as interview) would determine their final ranking. Candidates will be allotted to the various Services keeping in view their ranks in the examination andthe preferences expressed by them for the various Servicesand posts.

Preliminary Exam Pattern & Syllabus

Topics of Paper I - (200 marks) Duration : Two hours : Total Questions (100)

1. Current events of national and international importance

2. History of India and Indian National Movement

3. Indian and World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World

4. Indian Polity & Governance -Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

5. Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

6. General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization.

7. General Science

Topics for Paper II - (200 marks) Duration : Two hours : Total Questions (80)

1. Comprehension

2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills

3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability

4. Decision making and problem solving

5. General mental ability

6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, Data Sufficiency etc. - Class X level)

7. English Language & Comprehension Skills


1 : Paper­II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination will be a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.

2 : The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type.

3 : It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the Papers of Civil Services (Prelims) Examination for the purpose of evaluation. Therefore a candidate will be disqualified in case he/she does not appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination.

IAS Mains Exam Pattern & Syllabus

The written examination will consist of the following papers:

Paper A - Modern Indian language 300 Marks - Qualifying nature - Marks not counted - Passing mandatory-

(i) Comprehension of given passages.

(ii) Precis Writing

(iii) Usage and Vocabulary.

(iv) Short Essay

(v) Translation from English to the Indian language and vice-versa.

Note 1: The Papers on Indian Languages and English will be of High School level and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for final ranking.

Note 2 : The candidates will have to answer the English and Indian Languages papers in English and the respective Indian language (except where translation is involved).

Paper B - English - 300 marks - Qualifying nature - Marks not counted- Passing mandatory

The aim of the paper is to test the candidates' ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:-

(i) Comprehension of given passages

(ii) Precis Writing

(iii) Usage and Vocabulary

(iv) Short Essay 


Essay - 250 Marks - To be written in the medium or language of the candidate's choice. Candidate is required to write an essay on a specific topic. The choice of subjects will be given. They are expected to keep their thoughts closely to the subject and arrange their ideas in orderly fashion and be concise. Credit will be given to effective and coherent expression.


General Studies-I 250 Marks (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawing of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

Effects of globalization on Indian society

Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Salient features of world's physical geography.

Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.


General Studies -II: 250 Marks (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries

Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

Salient features of the Representation of People's Act.

Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

Role of civil services in a democracy.

India and its neighbourhood- relations.

Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora.

Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.


General Studies -III 250 Marks (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.

Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Government Budgeting.

Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers

Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

Land reforms in India.

Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Investment models.

Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Disaster and disaster management.

Linkages between development and spread of extremism.

Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention

Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism

Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.


General Studies -IV : 250 Marks (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)

This paper will include questions to test the candidates' attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

Human Values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen's

Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

Case Studies on above issues.


Optional Subject - Paper I -250 Marks


Optional Subject - Paper II -250 Marks

Candidates may choose any ONE optional subject from amongst the list of subjects given below.

Interview/Personality Test - 275 Marks

 Candidate can give preference of the language in which they may like to be interviewed. UPSC will make arrangement for the translators.

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Combo (Prelims cum main) ebook pdf 1499/-

If you want comprehensive curriculum based study materials, then "Develop India Group" will meet your needs in one place. We will also provide guidance for strategic preparation for the success in competitive exams. We have prepare the study materials by the analyzing the pattern of the last five years papers. So that we could include issues all important issues in the preparing of the study material. After analyzing the success of the past few years, we can say that Develop India Group is a top-tier institution, where 85-90 percent of questions are being asked by our study material. This is a major breakthrough for us and you can take edge over other competitors by the studying of Develop India Group study notes.

यदि आप व्यापक पाठ्यक्रम आधारित सम्पूर्ण अध्ययन सामाग्री चाहते हैं, तो डेवलप इंडिया ग्रुप एक ही स्थान पर आपकी आवश्यकताओं को पूरा करेगा। हम आपको प्रतियोगी परीक्षा में सफलता के लिए रणनीतिक तैयारी हेतु मार्गदर्शन भी प्रदान करेंगे। हम पिछले पांच वर्षों के प्रश्नपत्रों के पैटर्न का विश्लेषण करके पूरी अध्ययन सामाग्री को तैयार करते हैं। ताकि अध्ययन सामाग्री के निर्माण में हम सभी महत्त्वपूर्ण मुद्दों को शामिल कर सकें। पिछले कुछ साल की सफलता के विश्लेषण करने के बाद, हम यह कह सकते हैं कि डेवलप इंडिया ग्रुप एक शीर्ष स्तरीय संस्थान है, जहां 8590 प्रतिशत सवाल हमारी अध्ययन सामाग्री से पूछे जा रहे हैं। यह हमारे लिए बड़ी सफलता है और आप डेवलप इंडिया ग्रुप की व्यापक अध्ययन सामाग्री का अध्ययन कर के अन्य प्रतियोगियों पर बढ़त हासिल सकते हैं।

  1. Develop India Group (DIG) is India’s largest complete study materials provider website.
    (डेवेलप इंडिया ग्रुप (DIG) भारत की सबसे बड़ी अध्ययन सामग्री प्रदाता वेबसाइट है।)
  2. Develop India Group (DIG) prepared their study materials in the guidance of highly qualified and experience mentoring specialist.
    (डेवेलप इंडिया ग्रुप (DIG) ने सुयोग्य और अनुभवी सलाह विशेषज्ञों के मार्गदर्शन में अपनी अध्ययन सामग्री तैयार की है।)
  3. Develop India Group (DIG) study materials have been prepared strictly according to revised syllabus.
    (डेवेलप इंडिया ग्रुप (DIG) अध्ययन सामग्री पूर्णतया संशोधित पाठ्यक्रम के अनुसार तैयार की गई है।)
  4. Only aim behind preparing these study materials is to provide study material to those students, who are unable to attend coaching classes in mega cities.
    (इन अध्ययन सामग्रियों को तैयार करने का उद्देश्य केवल उन छात्रों कोअध्ययन सामग्री प्रदान करना है, जो महानगरों में कोचिंग क्लासेस में भाग लेने में असमर्थ हैं।)
  5. All kind of facts & data in this material have been collected from authentic sources.
    (इस सामग्री में सभी प्रकार के तथ्यों और डेटा को प्रामाणिक स्रोतों से एकत्र किया गया है।)
  6. All kind of data is updated in quarterly in our study notes.
    (हमारी अध्ययन सामग्रियों में सभी प्रकार के आंकङों को तिमाही में अपडेट किया जाता है।)
  7. Develop India Group (DIG) study materials have been prepared in simple language so that student can memorize easily and better understand.
    (डेवेलप इंडिया ग्रुप (DIG) अध्ययन सामग्री सरल भाषा में तैयार की गई है ताकि छात्र आसानी से और बेहतर ढंग से समझ सके।)
  8. Complete syllabus of preliminary and main exam has been covered in this study material.
    (प्रारंभिक और मुख्य परीक्षा का पूरा पाठ्यक्रम इस अध्ययन सामग्री में शामिल किया गया है।)
  9. All important and relevant points have been highlighted in bold, underline and italic ways.
    (बोल्ड, रेखांकन और इटैलिक तरीके से सभी महत्वपूर्ण और प्रासंगिक बिंदुओं को हाइलाइट किया गया है।)
  10. We have prepared our study materials with trained, talented, experienced team for each subject. They are supported by subject experts.
    (हमने प्रत्येक विषय के लिए प्रशिक्षित, प्रतिभाशाली, अनुभवी टीम के साथ और विषय विशेषज्ञों के मार्गदर्शन में अध्ययन सामग्री तैयार की है।)
  11. Once you will read these study materials, you will surely find 70 to 80 % questions in next coming examination.
    (एक बार जब आप ये अध्ययन सामग्री पढ़ लेंगे, तो आपको निश्चित रूप से आने वाली परीक्षा में 70 से 80% प्रश्न मिलेंगें।)

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