NEET 2022 Complete Study Notes
NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) for UG Medical courses is conducted by National Testing Agency every year.
NEET 2022 Exam will be conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) on 17th July 2022 for the admission of eligible candidates to the undergraduate medical courses in medical institutions. The exam for National-Eligibility-cum-Entrance-Test NEET(UG) 2022 will be conducted in offline mode on 17th July 2022.
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Revised Study Notes cover pages shown here
Examination Pattern and details
- Candidates can apply for NEET (UG)-2022 through the “Online” mode only.
- Submission of the Online Application may be done by accessing NTA website ntaneet.nic.in. The Application Form in any other means will not be tolerated.
- Only one application is to be submitted by a candidate. Candidates not complying with the instructions shall be summarily disqualified.
- Candidates must ensure that e-mail Addresses and Mobile Numbers provided in the Online Application Form are their own or parents only as all information/ communication will be sent by NTA through e-mail on the registered e-mail address or SMS on registered Mobile numbers only.
NEET Eligibility Criteria
The eligibility criteria has mostly remained the same. Minor changes are that the age criteria will be checked after completion of the exam and the upper age limit has to be calculated as on the date of the exam. The detailed eligibility criteria of NEET 2019 are as follows :
Indian Nationals, NRIs, OCIs, PIOs & Foreign Nationals
10+2 or equivalent with Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Biotechnology and English as core subjects in both Classes 11 and 12 from a recognized board.
UR - 50%, OBC/SC/ST - 40%, PWD - 45% (minimum aggregate marks only for PCB subjects)
The revised date of birth is on or before December 31, 2002. The upper age limit clause has been withdrawn for now. Admissions will be subject to the outcome of the case.
No limit on the permitted number of attempts.
NEET Qualifying Percentile
In order to qualify NEET Exam, candidates are required to score marks equal to or more than the NEET cut off. The cut off score cannot be predicted before the release of the result but the minimum required percentile to qualify the exam has been made available. The minimum required percentile will be different for different categories which can be checked in the table below :
UR (Unreserved) : 50th Percentile
UR-PH (Unreserved Physically Handicapped) : 45th Percentile
OBC/SC/ST (Other Backward Classes/Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe) : 40th Percentile
Pattern of NEET Question Papers
The exam includes questions from Physics, Chemistry and Biology syllabus of class XI and XII. Both Physics and Chemistry have 45 questions each. Biology has 90 questions divided equally among Botany and Zoology.
|Subject||No. of Questions||Maximum Marks|
NEET Examination Pattern
Exam mode : The exam will be conducted in a pen and paper based format. Candidates will have to mark their responses in OMR answer sheet provided using a ball –point pen. The stationery will be provided to candidates inside the examination hall.
Number of questions : NEET question booklet will consist of 180 questions from all the three subjects. Physics and Chemistry section will consist of 45 questions each, while, Biology section will comprise of 90 questions.
NEET Subject wise Number of Questions/Subjects/Number of Questions
Physics - Number of Questions 45; and maximum marks - 180
Chemistry - Number of Questions 45; and maximum marks - 180
Botany+Zology - Number of Questions 90; and maximum marks - 360
Total : Number of Questions 180; and maximum marks - 720
NEET Marking Scheme – Each question in NEET 2018 test paper will carry 4 marks. For every correct answer, the candidate will be awarded 4 marks.
In case of the wrong answer, there will be a negative marking of 1 marks.
For unattempt questions, there will be no negative marking. In case, the candidate has marked two answers to a question, it will be treated as a wrong answer and 1 marks will be deducted.
Hence, the candidate must only select one option out of the four.
Languages : NEET 2018 can be given in 10 languages namely English, Hindi, Tamil, Gujarati, Telugu, Bengali, Assamese, Marathi, Oriya and Kannada.
Candidates will have to fill their preferred language while filling the form. Once form is saved candidate cannot change the language.
Candidates choosing English language will get question paper booklet in English only.
Candidates choosing Hindi as a language will get bilingual question booklet in Hindi and English.
Candidates choosing any vernacular language will also get bilingual question booklet in that language and English.
If any ambiguity occurs in translation of language then its English translation would be treated as final.
Marking Scheme : Each question in NEET Exam question paper will consist of 4 marks. For each correct response, candidates will get 4 marks, whereas -1 mark will be deducted for each incorrect response. No marks will be allotted for unmarked question.
Qualifying marks in NEET : According to the official prospectus of NEET, in order to qualify NEET 2018, a candidate belonging to unreserved category have to secure a minimum of 50th percentile in NEET, while, a SC/ST/OBC candidate have to obtain 40th percentile. In respect to physically handicapped candidate, the minimum percentile is 45th.
NEET 2018 question booklet will consist of multiple choice questions from Physics, Chemistry and Biology taught during 10+2/HSC level after review of various stat syllabus as well as NCERT, CBSE and COBSE.
NEET Biology Syllabus
Diversity in Living World Details: What is living?; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Details : Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
Cell Structure and Function Details: Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
Plant Physiology Details : Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
Human Physiology Details: Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in human scentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
Contents of Class XII Syllabus
Unit I: Reproduction Details
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit II: Genetics and Evolution Details
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
Unit III: Biology and Human Welfare Details
Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
Unit IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications Details
Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
Unit V: Ecology and environment Details
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.