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Current Affairs October 2013

o Theoretical physicists, Briton Peter Higgs and Belgian François Englert, win the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on the origin of the mass of subatomic particles.

Francois Englert

o American scientists James Rothman and Randy Schekman and German scientist Thomas C. Südhof win the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on transport systems in cells.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013 winners are Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013 win by Alice Munro "master of the contemporary short story"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2013 win by Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) "for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons". The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided that the Nobel Peace Prize for 2013 is to be awarded to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for year 2013 win by Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert J. Shiller "for their empirical analysis of asset prices".

Trendspotting in asset markets

There is no way to predict the price of stocks and bonds over the next few days or weeks. But it is quite possible to foresee the broad course of these prices over longer periods, such as the next three to five years. These findings, which might seem both surprising and contradictory, were made and analyzed by this year’s Laureates, Eugene Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert Shiller.

Beginning in the 1960s, Eugene Fama and several collaborators demonstrated that stock prices are extremely difficult to predict in the short run, and that new information is very quickly incorporated into prices. These findings not only had a profound impact on subsequent research but also changed market practice. The emergence of so-called index funds in stock markets all over the world is a prominent example.

If prices are nearly impossible to predict over days or weeks, then shouldn’t they be even harder to predict over several years? The answer is no, as Robert Shiller discovered in the early 1980s. He found that stock prices fluctuate much more than corporate dividends, and that the ratio of prices to dividends tends to fall when it is high, and to increase when it is low. This pattern holds not only for stocks, but also for bonds and other assets.

One approach interprets these findings in terms of the response by rational investors to uncertainty in prices. High future returns are then viewed as compensation for holding risky assets during unusually risky times. Lars Peter Hansen developed a statistical method that is particularly well suited to testing rational theories of asset pricing. Using this method, Hansen and other researchers have found that modifications of these theories go a long way toward explaining asset prices.

Another approach focuses on departures from rational investor behavior. So-called behavioral finance takes into account institutional restrictions, such as borrowing limits, which prevent smart investors from trading against any mispricing in the market.

The Laureates have laid the foundation for the current understanding of asset prices. It relies in part on fluctuations in risk and risk attitudes, and in part on behavioral biases and market frictions.

o The Cabinet of India's approval of the bifurcation of the state of Andhra Pradesh causes protests and strikes in the Seemandhra region as a part of the ongoing Samaikyandhra Movement.

o The Gambia is to withdraw from the Commonwealth, 48 years after joining the 54-member grouping, which includes the United Kingdom and most of its former colonies.

o Adobe reveals that 2.9 million customers' data was stolen in a security breach which included credit card information.

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